Hassan Nima Habib, Alfred Solaka Karomy, Qutaiba Jassim Gheni, Wessam Monther Mohammed Saleh
ABSTRACT Toxins are a primary concern in the poultry industry, as major economic losses occur annually due to contamination of bird food with aflatoxins. At the same time, there is an expansion in the poultry industry, be it broilers or laying, and this expansion coincided with a turbulent increase in the percentage of contamination of poultry feed, which led researchers and workers in this field to look for unconventional feed, to get rid of this contamination. Therefore, it is urgent to know aflatoxin (its causes and effects). This review aimed to provide a general introduction to aflatoxin, its causes, chemical structure, metabolism and impact on DNA, as well as its economic effects, as well as the direct and indirect effect of aflatoxins on genes and gene expression. The necessary strategies have been revised to reduce aflatoxins or to reduce their negative effects. In conclusion, the effect of aflatoxin on the poultry industry is significant and very dangerous, and more detailed studies are needed to reduce its effect.