The Influence of the El Niño and La Niña phenomena on the climatic dynamics of the Amazon region
Samya de Freitas Moreira, Cleiciane Silva da Conceição, Milla Cristina Santos da Cruz, Antônio Pereira Júnior
ABSTRACT The influence of the natural climatic episodes denominated like "El Niño" and "La Niña", causes changes in the atmospheric circulation in diverse parts of the world. The objective of this study was to conduct a quantitative research on the influence of the El Niño and La Niña phenomena on the climatic dynamics of the Amazon region so that the damages caused by these meteorological events are divulged and prevented. The data obtained and analyzed indicated that the climatic phenomena denominated El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation - ENOS affect the climatic dynamics, which causes significant changes in the regime of the maximum daily rains, provoking tendencies of elevation or decrease in the precipitation rate in periods of El Niño and La Niña, respectively. As for the occurrence of such phenomena in the Amazon region, it was inferred that the episodes of drought provoked by the El Niño, manifest themselves with more intensity, compared to the La Niña event. Such phenomena can have socio-environmental consequences such as severe droughts, reduction of water reserves, forest fires, floods; and economic, the increase of the electricity tariff, due to the low levels of operation of hydroelectric plants in periods of drought. Therefore, it is necessary to establish preventive strategies to mitigate the effects generated by such events, with applicability for purposes of climate monitoring.